Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Internet Analysis Essay - 825 Words

Internet Analysis (Essay Sample) Content: Internet AnalysisName:Institution:Budgets cuts have had massive retrogressive effects on the country at large. However, the most affected sector has been the justice systems in all the American states. California, however, has borne the most damaging effects of the budgets cuts to the justice systems (Donatello, 2012). This means that most of the justice services that most of the citizens had access to in the state of California, are now not as accessible. The courts and other legal offices are forced to dial down on some services, leading to poor delivery along the corridor of justice. Currently, the justice systems of California have to deal with the crisis in the best ways they can and try to avert the detrimental effects to the state and the citizens (Robert, 2013).Amanda Robert, in his article coined the "California courts continue cuts, closuresà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , tries to bring out the elements of the justice crisis subjects to the budget cuts in the last few year s. In the article, the author states that there has been more than $1 billion dollars in budgets cuts to the justice system, in the last five years, a status that is confirmed by the Judicial Council of California. At the same time, the courts have lost more than 65% of their funding which used to come from the General Funds of the state. This details the massive cuts that have gone into the court systems and are bound to have some detrimental effects on the delivery of services to the citizens of the state of California. Over the same period of time, there have been more than 22 court houses that have been closed, 114 courtrooms have also been closed, while more than 30 courts in the state have cut down on the number of hours they can work relative to the poor funding scheme (Robert, 2013).According to the article, the Los Angeles county court, which happens to be the largest court system in the state, is also experiencing some of the most detrimental effects (Robert, 2013). The co urt recently announced that it would get rid of some 500 positions as it tries to cut down on the spending relative to the amount money it is receiving. This is bound to have massive effects on the justice delivery in the state, given the relevance of the court to the court systems of the state. When the positions were eliminated, more than 117 persons lost their employment, more than 139 were demoted to the positions that they held earlier and more than 223 had to be reassigned to other areas across the state to distribute the cost of running the justice system (Dolan, 2011). The court also made indications that it going to make sure that it reduces more than 24% of all of the positions that were budgetary allocated, before following the budget cuts that started in 2008 on the eve of world economic crisis. Other than closing courthouses and rooms, the court is also going to see to it that they eliminate the court reporters within the civil courts as well as doing away with the refe rees within the juvenile courts (Schwartz, 2014).Following the economic crashes of 2008, there were losses in the amount of income collected from real estates and at the same time the government was not in a position to raise money to replenish the general fund. A the funding dwindled in 2009 to 2011, the court systems were forced to cut down on the cost of running their business including laying off some of the staff, freezing employment and borrowing from the reserves to offset the balances left behind by the budgets cuts. As a result, the current state of the courts is deplorable. Most of the courts do not have judges and several of the courthouses and rooms are still closed, prompting some of the courts to use the trial courts to beat the budget cuts while still trying to offer quality services (Donatello, 2012). However, these cuts have come at the expense of the citizens as they now have to drive around much longer as they look for a court house to presents their cases. When o ne does find a court house, they have to wait for long hours to be attended as there are long queues from all over the counties. According to the author of the article, the budgets may have been necessary, but the manner in which they were carried out still leaves a lot to be desired (McCarthy, 2011). This is to means that, after the 2008 economic crisis, it was inevitable to cut down on the budget allocation in the various sectors of the economy. However, the justice system is one of the most crucial sectors in the economy, more so when the economy is not doing so well (Dolan, 2011). The budgets cuts which were well intended, have now been overdone and killing the justice system over time by reducing the efficiency and quality of services. The author recommends that there should be more funds to the courts to increase the level of efficiency and avoid running the justice system around.I conclude that the budgets cuts in the case of California have...

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Ck Fashion Advertising Major Project - Free Essay Example

Abigail Santy Rachel Content Page Page 1 Introduction Page 2 History of Calvin Klein Page 3 History of CK Underwear Page 4 Information on CK Underwear Page 5-6 Situational Analysis Page 7-9 Competitor’s analysis Page 10-11 Target Market Page 12-13 Analysis of Present Campaign Page 14-15 Strategy Brief Page 16-18 Creative Brief Page 19 Proposed Campaign Page 20 Media Plan Page 21-25 Campaign Ads Page 26 Unique Selling Preposition Page 27 Desired Consumer Response Page 28 Implementation Evaluation Page 29 Brief Summary of Proposed Campaign Page 30 Bibliography Introduction: Objectives In the industry of underwear, Calvin Klein Underwear can be viewed as one of the top few underwear brands that are present in this industry for many years. Even though Calvin Klein are famous in the area of it’s underwear, more needs to be done in order for it to sustain itself in the industry as there is an increase in the number of underwear companies and as such, Calvin Klein underwear needs to become even more creative and innovative in it’s products and advertising so as to gain more customers in the long run. As advertising is a form of communication used by companies as a way to help improve the sales of the products, Calvin Klein Underwear thus needs to create a new concept of advertisements so as to gain competitive advantage against it’s competitors in order to maintain it’s status and position in the industry. Thus, the objective of this project is to suggest an advertising campaign that will enable the company to not only further increase the awareness of the brand, but at the same time continually remind the customers of it’s brand in order to increase the sales of the products in order to improve the overall conditions of the company. History of Calvin Klein Calvin Klein is one of the fashion world’s biggest brands for their designer jeans, underwear and the wholesome, all- America look. Calvin Klein born in the year 1942, taught himself to sketch and sew as a boy. Later on, he went to New York’s high School of Art and Design and the Fashion Inst itute of technology and finally launching his own label , with the partnership of Barry Schwartz. Calvin Klein was listed as one of the America’s 25 most influential people by Time, he had shaped the casual wear industry and played a key role in modern advertising. Since then , he caused a storm of controversy when he had Richard Avedon photograph a pubescent Brooke Shields for his 1979 jeans campaign under the slogan â€Å" you know what come between me and my Calvins? Nothing. † Kate Moss later was to follow, helped launched his unisex perfume ck one. In October 1999, Klein was announced considering selling his fashion house, which shocked the fashion world again. And it was confirmed that he had taken his $1 billion fashion house off the market. 2 History of CK Underwear Calvin Klein underwear was formed in the year 1982 and it is known as the world’s finest designer for men and women. Men’s underwear suddenly became an object of desire. Calvin klein then publish new advertising campaigns which communicated the message of the updated, sexy designer sensibility that distinguish ck underwear from the others. In the year 1983, women’s line followed. The brand has also delivered a new line including basics, basics in fashion colors, as well as fashion forward, trendy underwear to the stores each season since then. Calvin Klein is also known for its quality, fits and fabrications are developed to perfection to preserve the brand standard of excellence. Men’s fabric range from comfortable cottons to edgy sheer synthetics, while women products includes foundations with clean and comfortable silhouettes, daywear with sexy lace elements and satin touches, as well as fashion trend forward prints and styles. Calvin Klein underwear brand is so successful that advertising spans 21 countries and reaches to an estimated number of 98 million people globally. 3 Information on CK Underwear Products Men’s: Bottoms: Bikini briefs, boxer briefs, boxers, gripper/cycle shorts, hip briefs, sport, thongs and trunks Tops: Long sleeve t-shirts, muscle shirts and tank tops Sleepwear Women’s: Bras: Balconnet, convertible, padded, push up, plunge, racerbacks, soft cop, t-shirt/contour, underwire, wireless, petite and full fit Panties: Panties, boyshorts, thongs and tangas Tops: Pants and shorts, slips and sleepwear Both men and women’s mostly priced from S$50 and above Orchard Road and City Link Mall. Stores are located centrally and it’s store concept is that of minimalism. Advertising is done through print media such as in magazines and posters that is pasted at store front. Price Place Promotion 4 Situational Analysis: The Company Financial Situation: In the year 2009, it can be noted that the world in general suffers from an economic problem which is that of the recession and as a result of it, many fashion retailers in the industries are affected by this situation in many ways. As stated by Shields (2009), it can be noted that the economy conditions have affected Calvin Klein in terms of it’s net sales which fell from $561 million to that of the current $529. million dollars. Besides this, it can be noted that the royalty, advertising and other revenues in the second quarter of 2009 had decreased by 10. 9% causing the revenue to drop to $71. 9 million as compared to the previous year second quarter of $80. 7 million. In the area of Calvin Klein Licensing segment, the royalty revenue decreased 6% for the second quarter, due to the decrease in a constant exchange rates resulting in the sales reduction in the fragrance business, which continues to be affected by the reductions in travel and discretionary spending. In terms of advertising, it can be viewed that Calvin Klein’s advertising and other revenue decreased $4. 1 million in the second quarter of 2009 as compared to that of the previous year due to the result of lesser discretionary spending in 2009 as compared to 2008 by Calvin Klein’s licensees. As a result of this, it can be noted that advertising and other revenue is collected and spend as both a revenue and an expense within Calvin Klein’s income statement (Phillipsvan Heusen Corp. Reports Operating Results, 2009). 5 Situational Analysis: The Company Brand Positioning: The brand positioning of Calvin Klein as a company and brand in general can be viewed as a form of â€Å"modern, practical fashion and minimalist chic†, which resulted in the encompassing of the lifestyle of fashion, thus the creation enlarging of the brand’s collection from the Calvin Klein Collection for the men, women and the home, CK for men and women, CK Jeans for men, women and kids, CK Underwear as well as beauty and cosmetics lines. Through this, it can be noted that Calvin Klein is a brand that is diverse in the product range thus able to gain hold of a higher market share in the industry. Though the brand may be known for being a â€Å"modern, practical fashion and minimalist chic†, the brand positioning changes in terms of advertising. In the world of advertising, Calvin Klein can be viewed as a brand that uses sex appeal to draw interest to the particular product range, in order to increase the sales of the products advertised. In some instances, sex appeals have been viewed as overly-used by Calvin Klein in terms of it’s advertisements campaign as some of the adverts that uses sex in the advertising are viewed as irrelevant to the product being advertised thus showing no connections at all. As such, over the years, Calvin Klein’s advertising campaigns are widely known for it’s controversial and provocative images, as seen in the three images here. In recent times, the top image, which is the adverts for the Calvin Klein Jeans 2009 campaign, have received tremendous news and reports with regards to the adverts and with some stating that it is considered to be a form of â€Å"soft pornography† as with the recent article on Fox News. Through this, it can be viewed that Calvin Klein can be viewed as a brand that uses shock value and controversy which will raise issues in order to gain publicity. Competitor’s Analysis: Emporio Armani AIDA MODEL: The AIDA model is being used to evaluate how advertising works. In this case, the Awareness level of this campaign is being raised as viewers would quickly recognized the male model as David Beckham the famous soccer player. The interest level is being developed when both female and male audiences are able to view Beckham’s body in only briefs and underwear which is not widely seen of photos taken of him. As such, the general audience would be curious to view these campaign images as a result of this. The desire and action level would be done when the target audience would want to either have the image of Beckham for the male audiences and for the female audiences, actions would be taken when they purchase Emporio Armani’s underwear for their boyfriends. As such, it can be viewed that with the use of David Beckham as a model, Armani is thus able to capture the target audiences which will in turn help to raise awareness and thus increase the sales of this product range. 7 Competitor’s Analysis: Dolce Gabbana AIDA Model: The awareness level of this campaign is raised through the brand’s name and as there has been a rise in the number of sports competition such as the Olympics and Youth Olympics, the audience of this campaign would be able to identify the message that it is trying to portray easily. The interest level of the audience would be due to the current ongoing events and rise in the number of water sports activities and these underwear adverts would target such groups of individuals and therefore, interest would be raised through this. Besides this, these group of male models are young muscular males who will be able to raise the attention of sportsmen, women as well as men who like sports. As such, interest is being raised through the portrayal of the underwear in a setting at the pool with a group of male models. The desire level can be achieved in the sight of the audience as males would want to look as fabulous as these male models portrayed in these campaign images and for women, they would like their boyfriend or husband to look the same as these group of male models. In order for the campaign to be seen as effective, the targeted audience must take the action in the purchasing of the DKNY underwear and in this case, the three images of the campaign reveals of three different styles of underwear grouped together, which shows of the different colors of the same design. Thus, the targeted audience are able to view these products and make their selections even before they enter into the store. 8 Competitor’s Analysis: DKNY AIDA Model: The awareness of this campaign can be viewed in terms of the knowledge of the brand in the eyes of the audience. Besides this,erotism is also used in the DKNY campaign seen above to grasp the attention of the audience. The capturing of the attention of the audience in order to raise the interest level can be seen through the way the campaign images is being taken. Unlike normal underwear ads, DKNY use of different angle shots create a new dimension to the brand’s campaign and therefore it may raise interest from the point of the viewers. The desire level on the part of the target audience would be the desire to want to have similar body shape and mass which will lead to these group of target audience to want to fulfill their innate desire of having a great body thus leading to them taking the action of purchasing the DKNY underwear in order to satisfy their innate desire of wanting to look muscular and macho. 9 Target Market : Demographics Age Group: †¢The age group of the target market of CK Underwear would be individuals between the age of 20 to the late 30s. Occupation: †¢The most likely occupation of the target market would be that of individuals who are young urban professionals with a white collar jobs. †¢Besides the working individuals, students make up a certain percentage of the entire target market. Education level: †¢The education level of the target market can be considerably high and they may have attained a diploma and above type of certificate of learning. Income level: †¢The income level of these individuals would be considered as from a middle income level status. The target market would also have a middle level of disposable and discretionary income that they received from either their work or from their allowances in the case of students. 10 Target Market: Psychographics Physical Features: †¢The individuals of CK Underwear target market would be considered as individuals who loves grooming and presenting themselves well. †¢They are individuals who will work out do whatever they can to present themselves with a good physical features. †¢Physical features can be considered as a major elements of their pride. Attitudes towards fashion: †¢This group of individuals can be viewed as individuals who is trendy and who follows the trends and the events and happenings of the fashion industry so as to stay in tune and not be seen as out of fashion. †¢They are also considered as individuals who are brand conscious and as a result, they may seek their identity in the brands that they wear. Spending habits: †¢This group of individuals are individuals who do not mind spending more in order to get products that provide comfort and style. They can be considered as individuals who are the splurger as they are conscious of brands and would prefer to buy luxury items rather than necessity goods. 11 Analysis of Present Campaign Analysis of the Campaign: The current campaign for CK Underwear for males would be that of the images seen above. Calvin Klein Underwear has used a male model, Jamie Dornan, who is an up and rising male model in the modeling industry as well as the fashion industry. B esides this, he is also named the male version of Kate Moss in both the GQ as well as ‘The Golden Torso’ by The New York Times according to London Evening Standard, 2009. As such, this can display CK Underwear as a brand that not only brings forth the best in it’s advertising campaign to promote it’s products, it can be viewed as a brand that understands the industry and trends well. This would indeed not only enhance the image of the brand as a contemporary brand with a conscious mind of the happenings of the fashion industry, it can also be viewed as a brand that values uprising individuals and give them the opportunity to gain experience. Besides this adverts, Jamie Dornan is also being used by CK Underwear to help promote it’s underwear competition and as such, it can be viewed that this advertising campaign would go hand in hand with the competition which will bring forth a fresh idea and concept when competing with it’s competitors. 12 Analysis of Present Campaign Information on the campaign: In 2009, Calvin Klein Underwear has held a 8 Countries 9 Men Competition with the collaboration with model, Jamie Dornan. Jamie Dornan, the current male model for CK Underwear 2009 ad campaign, will be guiding the contestants throughout the contest. The contest is a form of marketing and advertising campaign as it is a platform used to promote the new additions of the underwear line, which is that of the â€Å"steel† range which will include the flags from the nine countries (France, England, Sweden, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Russia and Spain) that would be participating in the male model competition. This campaign would last for a span of few months. This competition would be held in a way that the 9 finalists chosen will compete with each other in the Grand Finale which would in May 2010. The eward of this competition would be that the winner will be determined by the public vote and will be awarded a luxury trip to South Africa, while the eight runner up will be able to receive a one-year supply of CK Underwear products. Analysis of the campaign: Firstly, this campaign can be viewed as different from it’s competitors as it is a competition which will attract the target market to follow with the progre ss of this competition. As this competition involves 9 countries, the involving countries would follow closely with the competition and give their support for their representative models as it will involve their national pride. As such, the campaign would draw many to view the campaign and at the same time, it will raise brand awareness and remind the audience of the development of CK Underwear and eventually promote sales and awareness for the newest product. 13 Strategy Brief Objectives: The objectives of this campaign that is being proposed is to be able to attract the awareness of the target market, to remind the loyal and current customers about the promises of CK Underwear and it’s brand image and lastly, to be able to generate sales through the proposed campaign. Strategies: The strategies of this campaign would be the plan required to accomplish the objectives set out for this campaign. The strategies of this campaign can be divided into different segments. This segments consists of the key strategic campaign decision, the media strategy plan, the message strategy, other tools required to support the campaign as well as the campaign management. 1. Key Strategic Campaign decisions †¢ The target audience of this campaign would be directly on it’s loyal customers and potential customers. The brand positioning would retain it’s current brand positioning of being controversial and provocative, while at the same time, it would provide a competitive advantage to the brand due to it’s unique features of the adverts. 2. Media Strategy Plan †¢ The media selection of this campaign would be one that best suit the campaign as well as the place that is more prominent to the target audience and at areas that will seek the mos t attention of these individuals. The scheduling of the media plan would be viewed in terms of the situations or events that is happening in the area of the vehicle of the media used and in Singapore in general. 3. Message Strategy †¢ The message of the campaign will be viewed in terms of the key consumer outlook of the brand as well as the potential behavior of the campaign. †¢The objectives of the message would be to speak to the audience that even though CK Underwear is moving forward in terms of it’s products, the brand still retains it’s brand outlook while at the same time, displays the versatile nature of CK Underwear. The message of the campaign is designed to be similar to the past campaigns so as to bring forth a sense of reminiscence in the minds of the targeted audience, while at the same time, the adverts will spark off a whole new message which is that of the product being versatile and the adverts still consist of provocative and controversial impression. 14 Strategy Brief Strategies: 4. Campaign Management †¢The evaluation of the effectiveness of the campaign can be seen with the increase in sales of the products being advertised. The budget of the campaign would be $30, 000 to cover all the costs incurred in the carrying out of the campaign. Tactics: 1. Message of the Campaign †¢ As the brand is always known for it’s controversial and provocative portrayal of the models in the adverts, it is therefore an advantage for CK Underwear to use this situation as it’s brand positioning. However, besides the use of only sexual appeal in the adverts, the campaign should include thought-incurring images that will left a deep impression in the minds of the audiences. 2. Media Selection †¢In order to ensure that the media selected for the campaign is targeted at the target audience, surveys can be done by surveyor to determine the usual places that the target audience would frequent in order to ensure the adverts are place in the right place so as to be cost effective and effective in reaching out to the target audience in the most efficient way as well. †¢The schedules of the media placement would be determined by the gathering of the information of special events that is taking place in Singapore such as the Great Singapore Sale during the period of May-July 2010. As this period of time would be a season of sales, it would be suitable for the advertising campaign to start in the month of March so as to gather as much awareness of the brand and sales of the new products before the sales period begins. 3. Campaign Evaluation †¢In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign with regards to the awareness level, surveys can be done in the middle of the campaign so as to determine if the campaign is reaching out it’s target audience to a high or a low degree. Besides this, the calculation of the sales increment of the products promoted in the adverts can be compared against either the previous adverts products or on products not advertised so as to determine if the adverts did result in the increase of sales of the products advertised. 15 Creative Brief Problem: †¢The current problem faced by CK Underwear would be that of having lots of impact through it’s advertising campaign which displays of controversial and provocative messages that either attracts or create a negative view from the society due to the issue of sexuality presented in the adverts. However, though CK Underwear and it’s other bridge lines of Calvin Klein received considerably high level of impact, it can be viewed that the impact did not translate to higher sales as reflected in the financial situations of the company as a whole. Target Audience: †¢Demographics: The demographics of the targeted audience for the campaign would be mainly men and a p ortion of women who will buy boxers for males. These group of individuals will be between the age of 20 to late 30s individuals. These individuals may be possibly be a young urban professionals, sportsman or even a student. They are considered to be welleducated. nd have a middle range disposable income and discretionary income which is suitable to purchase CK Underwear as the products are priced at an affordable price range. †¢Psychographics: The psychographics of the targeted audience for the campaign would be men who loves grooming and presenting themselves well. Besides this, they care about the comfort of what they wear and as such, they would not mind paying more for comfortable and beautiful underwear. These individuals may be brand conscious and is a follower of fashion. The individual may also be individuals who love seeing their girlfriend in their clothing. Besides this, this group of target audience are viewed as more open to new ideas and concepts, and would not be easily offended by images that is controversial and provocative. †¢Consumer Behavior: In terms of the spending habits of the targeted audience, it can be viewed that the targeted audience falls under the category of the hunter, one who takes risk to get ahead and is aggressive about money, equating it with happiness and achievement; the splurger, one who is selfindulgent, prefers to buy lxury items and is self-centered and lastly; the striver, who believes that money makes the world go round, and thus equates money with power. 6 Creative Brief Brand Position: †¢ Brand Positioning: In order to maintain the brand positioning of being controversial and provocative so as to maintain it’s competitive advantage, it is therefore important to include both elements into the campaign. In order to be controversial, thought-incurring images should be included and in th is case, a female model is use to promote a male boxer shorts. To be provocative, sexual appeals is required so that the brand would maintain it’s positioning and make the adverts more appealing to it’s target audience. When CK Underwear was first started in the year 1982 for male underwear, it has received many loyal customers due to the success of it’s adverts and in this campaign, elements of the previous adverts would be included into the campaign so as to remind it’s loyal customers that CK Underwear is still promising the same promise to it’s customers. Communication Objectives: †¢ Message of the campaign: The message of the campaign is to not only speak to the targeted audience, but at the same time, it is also to create a specific response to the message by the target audience. In this campaign, the adverts messages would be to allow the customers and it’s target audience to be able to find an edge with the image of the adverts while at the same time, recapturing the image and spur the reminiscence of the previous CK Underwear and reputation into the minds of the viewers so as to not only create the response of the purchasing of the products advertised, but also to create a response which is that of the increase in the the loyalty of the customers and through this, there will be changes of word-of-mouth promotions done by our target audience. Proposition/ Selling Idea: †¢ Selling Idea: The selling idea of the campaign would be based on the images of the female model wearing of the male boxer shorts, it can be seen that the boxer shorts can be viewed as versatile and comfortable to the extend that a female can wear the shorts, it would make the boxer shorts more appealing to the targeted audience. 17 Creative Brief Media Considerations: †¢ Where the message will be delivered: The advertisements images of the campaign would be placed in print media such as magazines and posters. Magazines are a good way of advertising as it has itself created it’s own target market and as such, CK Underwear adverts would be effective in reaching out to it’s target market if it’s placed at the magazines that the target audience frequently read. Print media such as the posters are useful in many ways. Posters for this campaign would be placed in store front, billboards, newsstand, bus stops and even underpass of shopping centres. Creative Directions: †¢ Image of the adverts in the campaign: The image of the adverts would be that of a female model in a boyfriend’s shirt and CK boxer shorts for men. The feel of the entire image portrayed would be that of a ‘out-of-bed’ kind of look, but with the model still on a bed so as to reflect the idea that the model has just woke up and is seen wearing the boyfriend’s shirt and boxer shorts which also symbolizes the after sex image. Besides this, some other images of the adverts would portray the model’s boxer shorts being tugged and pulled at a man which can only be seen with the back of the body therefore emphasizing the fact that the boxers does not belong to the female portrayed in the adverts. Besides this, the female model used for this campaign would be a woman with an androgyny feel so as to give off an image of manliness to the entire feel of the CK boxer shorts. The female model used for this adverts would be that of an Asian female as there have been a strong emphasis on European models through the 9 Countries 9 Men CK Underwear Competition. As such, a fresh look and face is required so as to create a whole new feel to the entire campaign while retaining it’s brand image. 8 Proposed Campaign Message Design and Execution: †¢Message design: The message of the adverts campaign would be the slogan, â€Å"Nothing comes between me and his Calvins†. The reason why this slogan would be used is to ignite similar feeling of the 1990s concept of â€Å"Nothing comes between me and my Calvins†. This slogan is used in the past to show that Calvin Klein’s products are a part of the individual and nothing would come between the consumer and the produ cts. As such, this would create loyalty in the consumers as the brand is portrayed as personal to them. In this instance, the slogan would be twisted in a way that though the same feeling would be presented in the adverts, the use of a female wearing a boxer shorts and feeling comfortable about it would meant that the product is versatile as well as comfortable. †¢Message Execution: The message of the dverts can be carried out through getting the model to display ease and comfort when wearing the boxer shorts and at the same time, being masculine and having an attitude about it. Media: †¢Media selection: The media that will be used for this campaign would be that of the print media of magazines and posters. Posters will be situated at areas in Orchard Road such as placing it on a lamp stand near the road, newsstand, bus stand, underpass and in shopping malls itself. Campaign Budget: †¢Budget: The budget for this campaign adverts would be $30,000. As this campaign is new in the sense that it is the first time an Asian female will be used for the campaign adverts, and also the first time a female model would be promoting for a male underwear, it can be viewed that more coverage is required to reach as many of the targeted audiences as possible so as to not only create an impact, but also to push for actions in the sense of the purchasing of the products by the consumers. 19 Media Plan February 2010 1. Finalist of 9 Countries 9 Men announced 2. Start of the new advertising campaign March 2010 1. Launching of the advertising campaign in Print Media such as magazines like Style: Men etc. April 2010 1. Continuation of adverts in Print Media 2. Start of the placement of adverts in underpass of Orchard, placement of banners on road lamps and buildings 1. May 2010 Placement of adverts in shopping malls, bus stands, newsstands and continuation of the placement of adverts in magazines. 20 Campaign Ads 21 Outdoor Campaign 22 Outdoor Campaign 23 Outdoor Campaign 24 Campaign Ads 25 Unique Selling Preposition The unique features of these adverts can be seen as that it gives a whole new look to the entire advertising campaign for CK Underwear and even to the entire industry’s underwear advertising. This is because a female model is being used to promote for a product that is rightfully for males. As such, this would attract the attention of not only the male target audiences, but the female audiences curiosity would be raised as to why a female would be wearing a male’s boxer shorts instead of a female boxer shorts. Besides this, the female model used differs from the past campaigns and from it’s competitors in that it uses an Asian model instead of the usual European or American model and this would captures the attention of not only the Asian market, but the European and American market as well. This is because the consumers are used to having a Caucasian female or male as a model, and as such, in order to bring about fresh ideas and images, Asian models may be able to help to bring forth this concept and thus this is unique as it is not frequently seen in the market. The slogan would be part of the unique selling preposition as compared to competitors such as DKNY, D G and Emporio Armani, they do not have any slogan with regards to the underwear lines in their advertising and as such, by having a slogan, CK Underwear would be able to communicate directly with the targeted audience and thus create better understanding of the concept of the brand as well as the adverts. 26 Desired Consumer Response The most important element of advertising is to be able to get the target audience to response in a few ways. Firstly, through this advertising campaign, CK Underwear aims to be able to raise the awareness of the it’s target audience and potential target audience to the new products that is being launched. Besides wanting to create an awareness through the advertising with regards to the products being advertised (which is the boxer shorts), the advertising campaign is also aimed at reminding the consumers of the brand and it’s promise through the slogans. As such, this advertising campaign aims to be a platform for CK Underwear to be able to gain consumers support and increase the loyalty of it’s current customers and thus, the desired consumer response of this advertising campaign would be to persuade the targeted audience and consumers to make purchases of the products when they see the adverts. Secondly, the advertising campaign also seeks to create an impact in the industry and strengthen it’s brand positioning of being controversial through the fact that a female is wearing a male underwear and the feeling of being provocative through the use of emale model who gives an image of sexuality and at the same time, an androgyny look in order to portray the masculinity of the brand. Thus, as this is being portrayed and carried out in the adverts, there will be concerns from the public with regards to the adverts and as such, this will lead to the consumer to response in either a positive or negative responses such as medi a’s report of the advertising campaign which will help to promote the brand as well. 27 Implementation Evaluation Implementation: This advertising campaign will be implemented in Singapore as well as in European market in order to create a similar feel and build consistency with regards to the brand image as well as the advertising messages. †¢This series of adverts would be carried out during the period of February 2010 to May 2010. †¢The sequences of the setting up of the media plan would be done accordingly to the media plan. †¢The launch of the product which is that of the CK Underwear Boxer Shorts would be in line with the launch of the new advertising campaign. Evaluation: There are various ways in which the campaign can be evaluated. †¢The campaign will be evaluated based on the level of awareness of the adverts and this can be done through surveying of the target audience during the month of March-April 2010 to determine if the campaign is effecti ve in reaching out to it’s target market. †¢To determine if the message of the adverts is suitable or vice versa, CK Underwear marketing team would need to keep a lookout on the internet with regards to any negative or positive comments of the adverts in the forums or on the news. As the aim of an adverts is to increase the sales of it’s advertised product, there is a need to analyze if the campaign have helped to fulfill the objectives as stated in the strategy brief. This can be done by comparing the product’s revenue between the period from February-May 2010 with other products that is not being advertised. As the product is being launched in the same period as the advertising campaign, it is therefore easier to determine the effectiveness of the campaign through the analysis of the revenue earned. 28 Brief Summary of Proposed Campaign Time Frame of Campaign: †¢ Launch of campaign: The campaign would be launched on the 1st of February 2010 in conjunction with the announcement of the finalist for the 9 Countries 9 Men CK Underwear competition. †¢Duration of campaign: The duration of the campaign would be 4 months as it will be carried out from February to May 2010. Budget of the Campaign: †¢The budget of the campaign would be $30,000 as the new launch of product and concept of using an Asian model would require more exposure than usual form of adverts. Overall feel of the Campaign ads: The overall feel of the adverts of this campaign would be to bring about a sense of comfort when the model wears the underwear and at the same, sexuality is being used to give off a sexy feeling to the entire image while the androgyny feature of the model would add in the masculine elements to the entire concept. Media: †¢The media that will be used for this campaign would be that of print media such as the magazin es and posters which will be placed in newsstand, bus stops stand, underpass of shopping malls, banners on road lamps and buildings and also the placement of banners in shopping malls itself. 9 Bibliography 1. ?Phillipsvan Heusen Corp. Reports Operating Results (10-Q)? 2009. Guru Focus. Retrieved: September 11, 2009, from https://www. gurufocus. com/news. php? id=68971 2. ?Calvin Klein Threesome Ad Draws Oohs, Aahs and Protests? 2009. Fox News. Retrieved: September 11, 2009 from https://www. foxnews. com/story/0,2933,526491,00. html 3. Eyre, H. ?The Male Kate Moss: Jamie Dornan?. London Evening Standard. Retrieved: September 11, 2009 from: https://www. thisislondon. co. uk/fashion/article-23740356-details/The+male+Kate+Moss:+Jamie+Dornan/ article. do 30

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Timeline of the Medieval Traders on the Swahili Coast

Based on archaeological and historical data, the medieval period of the 11th through 16th centuries AD was the heyday of Swahili Coast trading communities. But that data has also shown that the African merchants and sailors of the Swahili Coast began to  trade in international goods at least 300-500 years earlier. A timeline of the major events on the Swahili coast: Early 16th century, the  arrival of Portuguese and the end of Kilwas trading powerCa 1400 start of Nabhan dynasty1331, Ibn Battuta visits Mogadishu14th-16th centuries, a shift in trade to the  Indian Ocean, the heyday of coastal Swahili townsCa 1300, the  start of Mahdali dynasty (Abul Mawahib)Ca 1200, first coins minted by Ali bin al-Hasan in Kilwa12th century, a rise of Mogadishu11th-12th centuries, most coastal people converted to Islam, a shift in trade to the  Red Sea11th century, start of Shirazi dynasty9th century, slave trade with the  Persian Gulf8th century, the first mosque built6th-8th centuries AD, trade established with Muslim traders40 AD, author of Periplus visits Rhapta The Ruling Sultans A chronology of ruling sultans can be derived from the Kilwa Chronicle, two undated medieval documents recording an oral history of the large Swahili capital of Kilwa. Scholars are skeptical of its accuracy, however, particularly with respect to the semi-mythical Shirazi dynasty: but they are agreed on the existence of several important sultans: Ali ibn al-Hasan (11th century)Daud ibn al-HasanSulaiman ibn al-Hasan (early 14th c)Daud ibn Sulaiman (early 14th c)al-Hasan ibn Talut (ca 1277)Muhammad ibn Sulaimanal-Hasan ibn Sulaiman (ca 1331, visited by Ibn Battuta)Sulaiman ibn al-Husain (14th c) Pre  or Proto-Swahili The earliest pre or proto-Swahili sites date to the first century AD, when the unnamed Greek sailor who authored the merchants guide Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, visited Rhapta on what is today the central Tanzanian coast. Rhapta was reported in the Periplus to be under the rule of Maza on the Arabian Peninsula. The Periplus reported that ivory, rhinoceros horn, nautilus and turtle shell, metal implements, glass, and foodstuffs were imports available in Rhapta. Finds of Egypt-Roman and other Mediterranean imports dated to the last few centuries BC suggest some contact with those areas. By the 6th to 10th centuries AD, people on the coast were living in mostly rectangular earth-and-thatch houses, with household economies based on pearl millet agriculture, cattle pastoralism, and fishing. They smelted iron, built boats and made what archaeologists called Tana Tradition or Triangular Incised Ware pots; they obtained imported goods such as glazed ceramics, glassware, metal jewelry, and stone and glass beads from the Persian Gulf. Beginning in the 8th century, the African inhabitants had converted to Islam. Archaeological excavations at Kilwa Kisiwani and Shanga in Kenya have demonstrated that these towns were settled as early as the 7th and 8th centuries. Other prominent sites of this period include Manda in northern Kenya, Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar and Tumbe on Pemba. Islam and Kilwa The earliest mosque on the Swahili coast is located in the town of Shanga in the Lamu Archipelago. A timber mosque was built here in the 8th century AD, and rebuilt in the same location, again and again, each time larger and more substantial. Fish became an increasingly important part of the local diet, consisting of fish on the reefs, within about one kilometer (one-half mile) from the shore. In the 9th century, connections between Eastern Africa and the Middle East included the export of thousands of slaves from Africas interior. The slaves were transported through Swahili coastal towns to destinations in Iraq such as Basra, where they worked on a dam. In 868, the slave revolted in Basra, weakening the market for slaves from Swahili. By ~1200, all of the large Swahili settlements included stone built mosques. The Growth of Swahili Towns Through the 11th-14th centuries, the Swahili towns expanded in scale, in the numbers and variety of imported and locally-produced material goods, and in trade relationships between the interior of Africa and other societies around the Indian Ocean. A wide variety of boats were built for sea-going trade. Although most of the houses continued to be made of earth and thatch, some of the houses were built of coral, and many of the larger and newer settlements were stone towns, communities marked by elite residences built of stone. Stonetowns grew in number and size, and trade blossomed. Exports included ivory, iron, animal products, mangrove poles for house construction; imports included glazed ceramics, beads and other jewelry, cloth, and religious texts. Coins  were minted in some of the larger centers, and iron and copper alloys, and beads of various types were produced locally. Portuguese Colonization In 1498-1499, the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama began exploring the Indian Ocean. Beginning in the 16th century, Portuguese and Arab colonization began to decrease the power of the Swahili towns, evidenced by the construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1593, and the increasingly aggressive trade wars in the Indian Ocean. The Swahili culture fought variously successfully against such incursions and although disruptions in trade and loss of autonomy did occur, the coast prevailed in urban and rural life. By the end of the 17th century, the Portuguese lost control of the western Indian Ocean to Oman and Zanzibar. The Swahili coast was reunited under the Omani sultanate in the 19th century. Sources Chami FA. 2009. Kilwa and the Swahili Towns: Reflections from an archaeological perspective. In: Larsen K, editor. Knowledge, Renewal and Religion: Repositioning and changing ideological and material circumstances among the Swahili on the East African coast. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitututet.Elkiss TH. 1973. Kilwa Kisiwani: The Rise of an East African City-State. African Studies Review 16(1):119-130.Phillipson D. 2005. African Archaeology. London: Cambridge University Press.Pollard E. 2011. Safeguarding Swahili trade in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: a unique navigational complex in south-east Tanzania. World Archaeology 43(3):458-477.Sutton JEG. 2002. The southern Swahili harbour and town on Kilwa Island, 800-1800 AD: A chronology of booms and slumps.: Uppsala University.Wynne-Jones S. 2007. Creating urban communities at Kilwa Kisiwani, Tanzania, AD 800-1300. Antiquity 81:368-380.

Why We Dream - 1785 Words

Why do we Dream? --http://psychology.about.com/od/statesofconsciousness/p/dream-theories.htm Many different theories have emerged to help explain the mystery of why we dream. Dreams are the touchstones of our characters. - Henry David Thoreau Dreams have fascinated philosophers for thousands of years, but only recently have dreams been subjected to empirical research and concentrated scientific study. Chances are that you’ve often found yourself puzzling over the mysterious content of a dream, or perhaps you’ve wondered why you dream at all. First, let’s start by answering a basic question – What is a dream? A dream can include any of the images, thoughts and emotions that are experienced during sleep. Dreams can be†¦show more content†¦This model suggests that dreams are a subjective interpretation of signals generated by the brain during sleep. While this theory suggests that dreams are the result of internally generated signals, Hobson does not believe that dreams are meaningless. Instead, he suggests that dreaming is †¦our most creative conscious state, one in which the chaotic, spontaneous recombination of cognitive elements produces novel configurations of information: new ideas. While many or even most of these ideas may be nonsensical, if even a few of its fanciful products are truly useful, our dream time will not have been wasted. Information-Processing Theories One of the major theories to explain why we sleep is that sleep allows us to consolidate and process all of the information that we have collected during the previous day. Some dream experts suggest that dreaming is simply a by-product or even an active part of this information-processing. As we deal with the multitude of information and memories from the daytime, our sleeping minds create images, impressions, and narratives to manage all of the activity going on inside our heads as we slumber. Other Theories of Dreams: Many other theories have been suggested to account for the occurrence and meaning of dreams. The following are just of few of the proposed ideas: * One theory suggests that dreams areShow MoreRelatedWhy We Dream632 Words   |  3 PagesThere are many reasons of why we dream and what those dreams mean when we have them such as things what we have learned in the past or just things that we don’t need anymore. Before all the theories and everything else what is a dream? A dream can be images black and white or color of something that has happened in the past or something that you’re wishing for that may just give you insight of how to fulfill that wish that you have. One theory that applies to some the dreams that people have is justRead MoreWhy We Dream908 Words   |  4 PagesThere are many interpretations on the meaning of why we dream. The reasons behind them, if they foreshadow the future, teach valuable life lessons, or if they mean anything at all. Jung’s t heory of dreams describes a theory of life lessons (Jungian Dream Interpretation 2013). Dreams expose things you do not know about yourself, connections with others, and problems in your everyday life (Jungian Dream Interpretation 2013). They help see the potential within, and give insight on how to solve problemsRead MoreWhy Do We Dream?1356 Words   |  5 PagesWhy do we dream the things we dream? What dictates the content of the movies for one that we watch when we fall asleep? This is a question that nearly everyone has pondered at some point in their lives and humans have been studying in an attempt to answer for thousands of years. Humans spend approximately one third of their lives asleep, and the idea that such a great portion of our time is spent in a state that we do not fully understand is bothersome to many. As humans, it is a natural desire toRead MoreWhy Do We Dream?2205 Words   |  9 PagesWhy Do We Dream? By William Allan | Submitted On February 06, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author William Allan The question as it was posed; Your write up is like a journey in itselfRead MoreWhy Do We Dream?2460 Words   |  10 PagesWhy do we dream? What do our dreams mean? Dreams are a sequence of images, ideas, and feelings that involuntarily occur most commonly during the REM stage of sleep. They come in a wide variety of types, from the peculiar to the downright terrifying; the dreamer has no control over what they experience in their dreams. Though neurologists have been studying the human brain for decades, we still don’t fully know why we dream or what their significance is. Some psychologists theorize that dreams areRead MoreWhy Do We Dream?2019 Words   |  9 Pagesis known as REM (rapid eye movement) sleep; REM sleep at one stage was thought to be the primary dream period. However recent research and empirical evidence has shown that REM sleep does not have a direct relationship with dreaming, it is however purely and simply the stage of sleep which allows better recall of dreams. This is supported by Nielson (2000) who presented empirical evidence that dream recall during REM sleep in adults was as high as 60-90% after waking, whereas when individuals passedRead MoreWhy Do We Have Dreams?790 Words   |  3 PagesThe reason behind dreaming has still not been scientifically proven, but there are many theories and religious beliefs as to why people dream at night. Theorists, such as Sigmund Frued, devoted their time to peoples dreams and observing them while they dream and sleep. These scientists have discovered that people are most likely to dream during the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) stage of sleep than any other stage because the mind is more aware then. There are theories that say that dreaming can predictRead MoreWhy Do We Dream? Essays631 Words   |  3 PagesWhy do we Dream? It has been said by researchers that everyone dreams during sleep and it is thought to be a universal psychical feature of our human lives. However, many of us are unable to recall vividly what happens throughout our dreams, if anything at all. Due to this clouded unique nature that is dreaming, most of the knowledge why we dream is largely inconclusive. Nonetheless, after many years of theoretical debate on the subject, three arguments have remained prominent of which I willRead MoreEssay on Sleeps and Dreams: Why Do We Sleep and Dream?741 Words   |  3 Pagesabout the Sleeps and dreams topic. It will be segmented into different parts, but I will first describe the basics of the sleeping and dreaming, why it happens and how. After that I will describe the different types of sleep which are REM (Rapid eye movement) and NON-REM. Other topics that will be discussed are the biological clock, consciousness and alerted, how much sleep does the body need, treatments and problems such as insomnia, sleep apnea and narcolepsy. Firstly, why do we need sleep? Our body’sRead MoreThe Purpose of Dreams1235 Words   |  5 Pages Dreams are a very ponderous things. Simply saying, dreams are a stream of images, sounds, and the actions of something; like a movie. But never have dreams been able to be explained. The Greeks and Romans claimed that dreams were signs from their gods and had prophetic magic (www.scientificamerican.com). Even though the purpose of dreams has not been discovered, a huge movement in the study of dreams occurred at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1952, scientists in Chicago discovered

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Canada s Sovereign And Morally Just Approach - 1514 Words

Canada has been highly involved in global issues and has held itself on moral grounds, despite some opposing influence. Canada’s sovereign and morally just approach can be seen in many events in the 20th century, such as in the Second World War, the Korean War, the Suez Crisis and the Vietnam War. As well, Canada’s imperfect, yet improving immigration policy displays the acceptance and unbiased approach Canada has towards people of different backgrounds. Despite some minor missteps and impediments, Canada would make an excellent choice for UN Advisor Country for the reason that Canada has spearheaded much global intervention, especially for such a small (population-wise) and unassuming country. The Second World War was an important event in Canadian history, turning an unobtrusive country on the outer edge of global affairs into a critical player in the 20th century’s most important struggle. The Canadian Prime Minister of the time, William Lyon Mackenzie King was hesitant to join the Second World War due to the devastating effects of the first war still being fresh. Canada took all variables into account and launched Canada into the war very well, with a primary focus on the manufacturing duties of the war. Notably, Canada carried out a vital role in the Battle of the Atlantic, allowing goods produced in Canada to pass the ocean and neutralize threats by German U-boats. In addition, Canada played a big role in the air war over Germany and contributed forces to the campaignsShow MoreRelatedThe Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership2022 Words   |  9 Pagessystem in place to promote the well-being of our society. Obstructing our democracy: ISDS provisions are enacted for the sole purpose of getting around, our democratic system. How can it be right for our government to pay penalties for big corporations just because of our government enacting laws that protect and promote the health of the society, our environment, and our economies? This ISDS provision is nothing but a scheme to put more power in the hand of big corporations. From the results of a publicRead MoreThe Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership2018 Words   |  9 Pagessystem in place to promote the well-being of our society. Obstructing our democracy: ISDS provisions are enacted for the sole purpose of getting around, our democratic system. How can it be right for our government to pay penalties for big corporations just because of our government enacting laws that protect and promote the health of the society, our environment, and our economies? This ISDS provision is nothing but a scheme to put more power in the hand of big corporations. From the results of a publicRead MoreThe Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership2035 Words   |  9 Pagessystem in place to promote the well-being of our society. Obstructing our democracy: ISDS provisions are enacted for the sole purpose of getting around our democratic system. How can it be right for our government to pay penalties to big corporations just because of our government enacting laws that protect and promote the health of the society, our environment, and our economies? This ISDS provision is nothing but a scheme to put more power in the hand of big corporations. 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Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Parliament of India. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. According to its constitution, India is a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic. India is the largest state by population with a democratically-elected government. Like the United States, India has a federal form of government, however, the central government in India has greater powerRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words   |  269 Pagesthe nature of global connections. Although we have extensive new, evidence-based material in this edition, as described below, we continue to strive to make the book even more userfriendly and applicable to practice. We continue to take a balanced approach in the eighth edition of International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. 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Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore

Behavioral Study Of Obedience By Stanley Milgram - 1313 Words

The twentieth century marked the beginning of rapid industrialization and innovation that allowed for exponential growth in society and science, psychology, in particular. This shift meant that there was modern technology and a better scientific understanding of life. The ideas of John Locke, George Berkeley, and Wilhelm Wundt emphasized the importance of consciousness, however, the materialistic overtone of this time brought new debates about the possibility of understanding the â€Å"subjective† in behavioral terms. Psychologists at the time went back to the mechanistic ideas of Julian Offay LaMettrie in order to find a new way to understand behavior. Animal psychology, a new understanding of physiology, and a search for new methods away†¦show more content†¦Stanley Milgram wanted to test subject’s readiness to obey authority without question, no matter what inhumane acts the authority commands. The subjects in the study were gathered by a newspaper adve rtisement that requested volunteers for an experiment to study the effect of punishment on learning, if chosen they would be compensated $4.50 for their participation. Forty males between the ages of 25 and 50 were selected with varying occupations and education levels. The experiment was conducted in the interaction laboratory at Yale University. The role of the experimenter was played by a 31 year old high school biology teacher who wore a gray technician’s coat and was aware of the true objective of the study. One naà ¯ve subject and one victim, an accomplice, performed in each experiment. The cover story, the effect of punishment on learning, was used to justify the administration of electric shock by the naà ¯ve subject. The naà ¯ve subjects were told that the experiment was going to test the effect different people have on each other as teachers and learners, and what effect punishment will have on learning in the controlled situation. The experimenter had the participants draw slips out of a hat to decide if they were going to be designated as a teacher or as a learner. This drawing was engineered so that a naà ¯ve subject was always the teacher and an accomplice was always the learner. Immediately after the drawing, the teacher and

Heparin Flushes Maintaining Central free essay sample

A recent heparin shortage allowed examination of heparin effectiveness in reducing C.V. thrombosis. Many studies have been performed during periods when heparin flushes (1 0 units/ml) were used and when saline flushes were used instead because of a nationwide heparin shortage. The studies have shown no significant evidence that using heparin over saline in central lines is more effective. .Heparin Flushes Maintaining Central Line Potency Maintaining the function of central venous catheters is an important nursing responsibility, which should be carried out following the best available scientific evidence.These central lines include peripherally inserted central theaters (Epics), tunneled catheters, and implanted ports. Once placed, the central lines may be left in place for days and if they become occluded by clotted blood or some other mechanical obstruction they cannot be cleared by flushing agents. While a person is hospitalized, the nurse needs to check the IV site to make sure the catheter remains in the vein and is delivering a continuous solution. The nurse also needs to flush the catheter routinely to prevent it from clotting.Heparin sodium is used as an anticoagulant in intravenous catheters in order to prevent clotting and minimize the incidence f phlebitis. Heparin infusion prolongs the duration of peripherally inserted central venous catheter usability, which permits a higher percentage of therapy completion without increasing adverse effects (Jennet Robertson 1994) and other studies also found heparins saline solution as a superior flushing agent to normal saline for IV lines in randomized control trials.However, although health caregivers believe that small doses of heparin used in flushing of peripheral intravenous lines is harmless, heparin could cause many side effects like hemorrhage, allergic reactions, thermodynamic, infection, and pain at the injection site. Heparin could also have interactions with many other frequently used medications, like ecstatically acid. Heparin is thought to prevent clots developing in the catheter which would decrease or prevent flow through it but might create a potential locus for infection.It can also interfere with promoting time and other lab results, creating an increased amount time spent my medical staff interpreting those results. Some research suggested using a normal saline flush was sufficient (American Association of Critical Care Nurses, 1993). If the studies show that alien is as effective as heparin when flushing central lines, then the use of saline would avoid patient exposure to heparin-associated risks such as hypersensitivity reactions, local tissue damage, bleeding, and heparin induced thermodynamic (HIT).Saline will also increase the accuracy of the patients coagulation profile, enhancing patient management. And saline is more cost effective for institutions. But there are some studies that have shown an increase in infections when using saline over heparin. A study was done to establish guidelines on flushing central line catheters and is summarized in Table 6 (Mitchell M. D. Anderson B. J. Williams K. And miscued C. A. Peg. 2012). The guidelines are important to know because each institution has different protocols and policies that can affect the results.For example, how often an institute flushes central lines could lead to more occlusions or less occlusions regardless of what is being used to flush. Then primary studies were done to compare institutions and their findings or results when flushing with heparin versus saline. Their results are found in tables 7 and 8 (Mitchell M. D. Anderson B. J. Williams K. And Miscued C. A. Peg. 2013 2016). In studies of peripheral and arterial catheters, rates of thrombus formation were equivalent, whether saline or a heparin solution was used for flushing.Randomized trials found that flushing with heparin had no significant effect on catheter potency rates compared with flushing using saline (Gogh). The studies that have been done have not shown a significant difference in the use of heparin versus saline but that could be due to the way the studies were done or by who was participating in them. Some studies were done only on certain types of catheters. Others had more females to males, older to monger, or had patients that needed more frequent flushing than others. Also, the amount of flushing solution according to institution policies and how often to flush.Most facilities have updated their central line care policies according to their best medical recommendations. Last year Yale New Haven Hospital sent out an urgent practice alert to medical staff stating changes in the central venous catheter device (C.V. ) flushing guidelines. They are following recommendations that they are to follow the manufacturer of the catheters guidelines whether to flush with heparin or saline. And they listed each type of device and the preferred method of flushing according to manufacturers (Yale New Haven Guidelines attached).Most common practice we have used in clinical is flushing with heparin 5 units/ml with each use and once every 24 hours. The evidence base on heparin flushing is small. The studies have been inconclusive as to which flushing agent should be preferred. Without this evidence, we do not know how well heparin flushes prevent occlusions or reduce the risk for catheter-related blood stream infections. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of saline ND heparin flushes in maintaining central lines for better clinical practice.